Like other bull deities, Apis was probably at first a fertility god concerned with the propagation of grain and herds, but he became associated with Ptahthe paramount deity of the Memphite area, and also with Osiris as User-Hapi and Sokaris, gods of the dead and of the underworld.
Without success, Alexander had attempted to use Amun for this purpose, but that deity was more prominent in Upper Egypt and not for those in Lower Egyptwhere the Greeks had stronger influence. Because the festivals took place in the open, public participation was permitted, and by the early 2nd millennium bce it had become fashionable to be buried along the processional road at Abydos or to erect a cenotaph there as a representative of the dead.
The idea that rebirth in the next life could be gained by following Osiris was maintained through certain cult forms. He was given a window in the temple through which he could be seen, and on certain holidays was led through the streets of the city, bedecked with jewelry and flowers. Nevertheless, somehow Isis was able to revive her husband, and the god Horus was conceived during this time.
Greco-Roman authors connected Osiris with the god Dionysus. Some of the myths even seem to contradict each other, but this could also be due to varied religious ideas and practices in different regions of Egypt at the time.
Apis is kept in this court whenever he appears; it has a colonnade round it, with statues six meters high instead of pillars, and is richly carved with figures.
The Apis bull was considered to be a manifestation of the pharaoh, as bulls were symbols of strength and fertility, qualities which are closely linked with kingship "strong bull of his mother Hathor " was a common title for gods and pharaohs. The Apis-calf has distinctive marks: Set who was lauded by the Hyksos.
Royal children such as the first human kings are said to descend from the joining of a god with a human woman. This also seems to indicate that the world will then be reformed anew as these gods represent renewal and creation.
Here, Serapis has a temple at Babylonand is of such importance that he alone is named as being consulted on behalf of the dying king.
Some of the fundamental myths focus on the shape of the world, in this case a flat piece of land personified as the god Gebover which is the sky the goddess Nut.
From the origin of the world, natural phenomena and even some of the human institutions. The bull was therefore a kind of servant, who was himself divine.
The earliest mention of a Serapis is in the authentic death scene of Alexander, from the royal diaries. The origin of humans is not as well documented in the myths except for the myths which say humans came from the tears of Ra-Atum or Eye of Ra or molded from clay by Khnum.
The sarcophagi are of immense size and the burial must have entailed enormous expense. The bovines in the region in which Ptah was worshipped exhibited white patterning on their mainly black bodies, and so a belief grew up that the Apis bull had to have a certain set of markings suitable to its role.
Osiris and Horus were thus father and son. Most myths are around creationism from chaos rather than human beginnings. His breath was believed to cure disease and his presence to bless those around with strength.
Nevertheless, the Greeks had little respect for animal-headed figures, and so a Greek statue was chosen as the idol, and proclaimed as anthropomorphic equivalent of the highly popular Apis.
It was named Aser-hapi i. She also was treated specially, and given a special burial. As a manifestation of Ptah, Apis also was considered to be a symbol of the king, embodying the qualities of kingship.
Usiri Osiris, also called Usir, one of the most important gods of ancient Egypt. Therefore, he was known as Osiris-Apis. Various rituals also form part of the mythology.
Unlike the cults of most of the other Egyptian deities, the worship of the Apis bull was continued by the Greeks and after them by the Romans, and lasted until almost A. The figure was enthroned with the modiuswhich is a basket or a grain-measure, on his head, a Greek symbol for the land of the dead.
When maat exists, life and happiness becomes possible. All are related to the worship of Hathor or Bat, similar primary goddesses separated by region until unification that eventually merged as Hathor.
One of the experts was the one of the Eumolpidae, the ancient family from whose members the hierophant of the Eleusinian Mysteries had been chosen since before history, and the other was the scholarly Egyptian priest Manetho, which gave weight to the judgement both for the Egyptians and the Greeks.
The careful documentation of the ages of the animals in the later instances, with the regnal dates for their birth, enthronement, and death have thrown much light on the chronology from the Twenty-second Dynasty onward.
This dual role was in turn combined with the Egyptian concept of divine kingship: Examples are the white Mnevis bull and the Bouchis of Hermonthis, which was also white but had a black head.
The Greeks identified the Apis with their demi-god Epaphus, a son of their supreme god Zeus and his lover Io, who had been transformed into a cow.Apis was the most popular of three great bull cults of ancient Egypt, the others being the cults of Mnevis and Buchis.
All are related to the worship of Hathor or Bat, similar primary goddesses separated by region until unification that eventually merged as Hathor. Apis, an Egyptian bull god, was the personification of the creator god Ptah in Memphis. He is an intermediary between the supreme god and human beings.
He is an intermediary between the supreme god and human beings. In Egyptian Mythology Apis was a god depicted as a bull, symbolizing fertility and strength in war.
[Oxford Dictionary] Apis Sacred bull who served as the BA (physical manifestation) or 'herald' of the god PTAH, His principal sanctuary was therefore located near the temple of Ptah at Memphis, in the vicinity of which the 'embalming house' of the Apis bulls.
The cult of the Apis bull started at the very beginning of Egyptian history, probably as a fertility god connected to grain and the herds.
In a funerary context, the Apis was a protector of the deceased, and linked to the pharaoh. The Apis bull was always associated with the king of Egypt and, among its many meanings, represented the strength and vitality of the reigning monarch.
Origin & Selection. There are no myths related to the origin of Apis, but he is attested to through engravings from the Predynastic Period (c. BCE). Apis: the divine bull of the Egyptian capital Memphis, a manifestation of the god Ptah.
The died bull had become identical to the god of the Underworld, Osiris. Therefore, he was known as Osiris-Apis. During the reign of the Ptolemaic kings ( BCE), the god Osirapis or Serapis became the most important god of Egypt.Download